• Backdoor*

    A Remote Control Software used to allow remote access or control of computer systems. It can be used to turn a user’s machine into a mass mailer or soldier for DDoS attack or a host for malicious or inappropriate content; it is stealing cycles and other resources; can slow machines down; may be associated with loss of data; and may cause personal information to be shared widely or allow it to be stolen. It may allow remote technical support or troubleshooting; can provide users remote access to own data or resources.

    *Anti-Spyware Coalition Definitions and Supporting Documents

  • Backup authority*

    A trusted application running on a secure computer that provides secondary storage for the session keys of its clients. The backup authority stores session keys as key BLOBs that are encrypted with the backup authority`s public key.


  • Base content type

    A type of data contained in a PKCS #7 message. Base content types only contain data, no cryptographic enhancements such as hashes or signatures. Currently, the only base content type is the Data content type.

  • Base cryptographic functions

    The lowest level of functions in the CryptoAPI architecture. They are used by applications and other high-level CryptoAPI functions to provide access to CSP-provided cryptographic algorithms, secure key generation, and secure storage of secrets.

  • Basic Encoding Rules

    (BER) The set of rules used to encode ASN.1 defined data into a stream of bits (zeros or ones) for external storage or transmission. A single ASN.1 object may have several equivalent BER encodes. BER is defined in CCITT Recommendation X.209. This is one of the two encoding methods currently used by CryptoAPI.

  • Big endian

    A memory or data format in which the most significant byte is stored at the lower address or arrives first.

  • BLOB

    A generic sequence of bits that contain one or more fixed-length header structures plus context specific data.

  • Block cipher

    A cipher algorithm that encrypts data in discrete units (called blocks), rather than as a continuous stream of bits. The most common block size is 64 bits. For example, DES is a block cipher.

  • Bulk encryption key

    A session key derived from a master key. Bulk encryption keys are used in Schannel (A security package that provides authentication between clients and servers) encryption.